A networking is a collection of computers linked to one another allowing information an resources to be shared between them.
Setting Up A Network:
A Network is setup by connecting the various computers through the cables, connectors and connectivity devices such as hubs or switches along with which necessary protocols for enabling communication between them are implemented. Any computer can access a network directly by using a network adaptor expansion card also known as Network Interface Card(NIC) and a network cable.
Types of cabling are:
Coaxial cabling: Contains a central wire which is insulated and on top of which there is grounded layer or braided wire. Coaxial cables can carry more data and are less prone to interference.
Plunem Cabling:Has an outer shield made up of Teflon,which is fire repellant,and which does not produce poisonous fumes when burnt.
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable:Two coupled and twisted wires so that the noise of the two seperate wires that are covered in a shield of foil ,so that data transmission is safer.
Fiber Optic cable: Made of plastic,glass or hybrid fiber, which transmits data in the form of light signals.It is expensive but has. High speed and ensures security in data transmission.
Connectors:Some commonly used connectors in a network are BNC, RJ-45, AUI,ST/SC and IDC/UDC.
Network cards: Transmit and receive information in the parallel mode to and from the system bus and in the serial mode to and from the network.It handles the conversion of information to a compatible format as per the network.
Bandwidth: Quantity of information that can be transferred in a specific time unit. The unit for bandwidth, faster is the data transfer.
Addressing: Every computer on t he network is also called a node and each node has a specific address, so that, data can be routed correctly to the respective node. Four main types ot addressing techniques are:
Media Access Control(MAC):
Used for addressing the internal devices of a network not the devices outside the Local Area Network (LAN).
Internet Protocol Addressing(IP):
Identifies the long distance addresses of device on a transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP) network. It is 32 bit address.
It recognises program running on a computer .It is a number between 0 and 65,535 and is called I/O address.
Set of rules and regulations that define the method of communication between two or more computers in a network. Types of protocol are:
-Transmission Control Protocol (TCP/IP): Establishes a connection between two computer system that are used by the user from a different location and transfer of information packets. IP deals only with packets. It defines their format and the addressing method. TCP and IP are coupled together to setup a virtual network between a source and destination system.